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Life in Christ

507

in overcoming objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety

aroused by its obscurity. If deliberately cultivated doubt can lead

to spiritual blindness.

2089

Incredulity

is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful re­

fusal to assent to it. “

Heresy

is the obstinate post-baptismal denial

of some truth which must be believed with divine and catholic

faith, or it is likewise an obstinate doubt concerning the same;

apostasy

is the total repudiation of the Christian faith;

schism

is the

refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with

the members of the Church subject to him.”

11

Hope

2090

When God reveals Himself and calls him, man cannot fully

respond to the divine love by his own powers. He must hope that

God will give him the capacity to love Him in return and to act in

conformity with the commandments of charity. Hope is the confi­

dent expectation of divine blessing and the beatific vision of God;

it is also the fear of offending God’s love and of incurring

punishment.

2091

The first commandment is also concerned with sins

against hope, namely, despair and presumption:

By

despair,

man ceases to hope for his personal salvation

from God, for help in attaining it or for the forgiveness of his sins.

Despair is contrary to God’s goodness, to his justice—for the Lord

is faithful to his promises—and to his mercy.

2092

There are two kinds of

presumption.

Either man presumes

upon his own capacities, (hoping to be able to save himself without

help from on high), or he presumes upon God’s almighty power

or his mercy (hoping to obtain his forgiveness without conversion

and glory without merit).

11 CIC, can. 751: emphasis added.

162

817

1817-1821

1996

1864

2732