Life in Christ
in overcoming objections connected with the faith, or also anxiety
aroused by its obscurity. If deliberately cultivated doubt can lead
to spiritual blindness.
is the neglect of revealed truth or the willful re
fusal to assent to it. “
is the obstinate post-baptismal denial
of some truth which must be believed with divine and catholic
faith, or it is likewise an obstinate doubt concerning the same;
is the total repudiation of the Christian faith;
refusal of submission to the Roman Pontiff or of communion with
the members of the Church subject to him.”
When God reveals Himself and calls him, man cannot fully
respond to the divine love by his own powers. He must hope that
God will give him the capacity to love Him in return and to act in
conformity with the commandments of charity. Hope is the confi
dent expectation of divine blessing and the beatific vision of God;
it is also the fear of offending God’s love and of incurring
The first commandment is also concerned with sins
against hope, namely, despair and presumption:
man ceases to hope for his personal salvation
from God, for help in attaining it or for the forgiveness of his sins.
Despair is contrary to God’s goodness, to his justice—for the Lord
is faithful to his promises—and to his mercy.
There are two kinds of
Either man presumes
upon his own capacities, (hoping to be able to save himself without
help from on high), or he presumes upon God’s almighty power
or his mercy (hoping to obtain his forgiveness without conversion
and glory without merit).
11 CIC, can. 751: emphasis added.