brings into play different interests, often op
posed to one another. This explains why the conflicts that charac
terize it arise.
Efforts should be made to reduce these conflicts
by negotiation that respects the rights and duties of each social
partner: those responsible for business enterprises, representatives
of wage-earners (for example, trade unions), andpublic authorities
responsibility of the state.
“Economic activity, especially
the activity of a market economy, cannot be conducted in an
institutional, juridical, or political vacuum. On the contrary, it
presupposes sure guarantees of individual freedom and private
property, as well as a stable currency and efficient public services.
Hence the principal task of the state is to guarantee this security, so
that those who work and produce can enjoy the fruits of their labors
and thus feel encouraged towork efficiently andhonestly. . . .Another
task of the state is that of overseeing and directing the exercise of
human rights in the economic sector. However, primary responsi
bility in this area belongs not to the state but to individuals and to
the various groups and associations which make up society.”
responsible for business enterprises
are responsible to
society for the economic and ecological effects of their opera
They have an obligation to consider the good of persons
and not only the increase of
Profits are necessary, however.
They make possible the investments that ensure the future of a
business and they guarantee employment.
Access to employment
and to professions must be open to all
without unjust discrimination: men and women, healthy and dis
abled, natives and immigrants.
For its part society should, ac
cording to circumstances, help citizens find work and
is the legitimate fruit of work. To refuse or
withhold it can be a grave injustice.
In determining fair pay both
the needs and the contributions of each person must be taken into
account. “Remuneration for work should guarantee man the op
portunity to provide a dignified livelihood for himself and his
family on the material, social, cultural, and spiritual level, taking
67 § 2.