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The Profession of Faith

65

Father as “the source and origin of the whole divinity.”

72

But the

eternal origin of the Spirit is not unconnected with the Son’s origin:

“The Holy Spirit, the third person of the Trinity, is God, one and

equal with the Father and the Son, of the same substance and also

of the same nature . . . . Yet he is not called the Spirit of the Father

alone, . . . but the Spirit of both the Father and the Son.”

73

The Creed

of the Church from the Council of Constantinople confesses: “who

with the Father and the Son is adored and glorified.”

74

246

The Latin tradition of the Creed confesses that the Spirit

“proceeds from the Father

and the Son

(

filioque

).” The Council of

Florence in 1438 explains: “The Holy Spirit is eternally from Father

and Son; He has his nature and subsistence at once (

simul

) from the

Father and the Son. He proceeds eternally from both as from one

principle and through one spiration . . . . And, since the Father has

through generation given to the only-begotten Son everything

that belongs to the Father, except being Father, the Son has also eter­

nally from the Father, from whom he is eternally born, that the

Holy Spirit proceeds from the Son.”

75

247

The affirmation of the

filioque

does not appear in the Creed

confessed in 381 at Constantinople. But Pope St. Leo I, following an ancient

Latin andAlexandrian tradition, had already confessed it dogmatically in

447,

76

even before Rome, in 451 at the Council of Chalcedon, came to

recognize and receive the Symbol of 381. The use of this formula in the

Creed was gradually admitted into the Latin liturgy (between the eighth

and eleventh centuries). The introduction of the

filioque

into the Niceno-​

Constantinopolitan Creed by the Latin liturgy constitutes moreover, even

today, a point of disagreement with the Orthodox Churches.

248

At the outset the Eastern tradition expresses the Father’s charac-

ter as first origin of the Spirit. By confessing the Spirit as he “who proceeds

from the Father,” it affirms that he

comes from

the Father

through

the Son.

77

The Western tradition expresses first the consubstantial communion be-

tween Father and Son, by saying that the Spirit proceeds from the Father

and the Son (

filioque

). It says this, “legitimately and with good reason,”

78

for the eternal order of the divine persons in their consubstantial commun­

ion implies that the Father, as “the principle without principle,”

79

is the

first origin of the Spirit, but also that as Father of the only Son, he is, with

the Son, the single principle from which the Holy Spirit proceeds.

80

This

72 Council of Toledo VI (638): DS 490.

73 Council of Toledo XI (675): DS 527.

74 Nicene Creed; cf. DS 150.

75 Council of Florence (1439): DS 1300-1301.

76 Cf. Leo I,

Quam laudabiliter

(447): DS 284.

77

Jn

15:26; cf.

AG

2.

78 Council of Florence (1439): DS 1302.

79 Council of Florence (1442): DS 1331.

80 Cf. Council of Lyons II (1274): DS 850.

685