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“mother of the living” in the order

of grace (511).




The opposite or absence of

good. One form of evil, physical

evil, is a result of the “state of

journeying” toward its ultimate

perfection in which God created

the world, involving the existence

of the less perfect alongside the

more perfect, the constructive and

the destructive forces of nature,

the appearance and disappearance

of certain beings (310). Moral

evil, however, results from the

free choice to sin which angels

and men have; it is permitted by

God, who knows how to derive

good from it, in order to respect

the freedom of his creatures (311).

The entire revelation of God’s

goodness in Christ is a response

to the existence of evil (309, 385,

1707). The devil is called the Evil






Prayerful self-

reflection on our words and

deeds in the light of the Gospel

to determine how we may have

sinned against God. The reception

of the Sacrament of Penance ought

to be prepared for by such an

examination of conscience (1454).


A severe

ecclesiastical penalty, resulting

from grave crimes against the

Catholic religion, imposed

by ecclesiastical authority or

incurred as a direct result of

the commission of an offense.

Excommunication excludes the

offender from taking part in the

Eucharist or other sacraments

and from the exercise of any

ecclesiastical office, ministry, or

function (1463).


God’s saving

intervention in history by which

he liberated the Hebrew people

from slavery in Egypt, made a

covenant with them, and brought

them into the Promised Land. The

Book of Exodus, the second of

the Old Testament, narrates this

saving history (62). The exodus

is commemorated by the Jewish

people at Passover, which for

Christians is a foreshadowing of

the “passover” of Jesus Christ

from death to life and is celebrated

in the memorial of the Eucharist



The public and

authoritative act of the Church

to protect or liberate a person or

object from the power of the devil

(e.g., demonic possession) in the

name of Christ (1673). A simple

exorcism prayer in preparation

for Baptism invokes God’s help

in overcoming the power of Satan

and the spirit of evil (1237).


The act of

redemption and atonement for

sin which Christ won for us by

the pouring out of his blood on

the cross, by his obedient love

“even to the end” (


13:1) (433,

616, 1475). The expiation of sins

continues in the mystical Body

of Christ and the communion of

saints by joining our human acts

of atonement to the redemptive

action of Christ, both in this life

and in Purgatory.



Anointing of the Sick.



Both a gift of God and a

human act by which the believer

gives personal adherence to

God who invites his response,

and freely assents to the whole