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514 • Conclusion and Appendices

Spirit. Traditionally,


has been

used to refer to the Father, or the

First Person of the Trinity, as well as

to the whole Godhead.


The proclamation of the

entire message of faith revealed in

and through Jesus Christ, the Son

of God and the Second Person of

the Trinity. The word



refers to one of the four books of

the New Testament—Matthew,

Mark, Luke, and John—that con-

tain a record of the life, teaching,

death, and Resurrection of Jesus.


The help God gives us to

respond to our vocation to become

his adopted sons and daughters.

The divine initiative of grace pre-

cedes, prepares, and elicits our free

response in faith and commitment.

Sanctifying grace is a habitual gift

of God’s own divine life, a stable

and supernatural disposition that

enables us to live with God and to

act by his love. Actual graces refer

to God’s interventions in our lives,

whether at the beginning of conver-

sion or in the course of the work

of sanctification.


An inordinate

attachment to the goods of cre-

ation, frequently expressed in the

pursuit of money or other symbols

of wealth, which leads to sins of

injustice and other evils.



A religious teaching that

denies or contradicts truths revealed

by God.


A state of goodness in

which a person—with the help of

God’s grace, the action of the Holy

Spirit, and a life of prayer—is freed

from sin and evil. Such a person,

when gifted with holiness, must still

resist temptation, repent of sins that

may be committed, and realize that

remaining holy is a lifelong pilgrim-

age with many spiritual and moral

challenges. The struggles evident

in the lives of the saints are instruc-

tive when trying to explain and

describe holiness.


In the United States, for Latin

Catholics these days are: Mary,

Mother of God (January 1);

Ascension (forty days after

Easter or the following Sunday);

Assumption of Mary (August 15);

All Saints Day (November 1);

Immaculate Conception of Mary

(December 8); Nativity of our Lord

or Christmas (December 25). On

these days, there is an obligation

to attend Mass and to refrain from

servile work as much as possible.



The Sacrament in which a