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Appendix A. Glossary • 517

conditions require that at one and

the same time:

The damage inflicted by the

aggressor on the nation or com-

munity of nations must be last-

ing, grave and certain;

All other means of putting an

end to it must have been shown

to be impractical or ineffective;

There must be serious prospects

of success;

The use of arms must not pro-

duce evils graver than the evil to

be eliminated.

The power of modern means of

destruction weighs very heav-

ily in evaluating this condition.

These are the traditional ele-

ments in what is called the “just

war” doctrine.

The evaluation of these con-

ditions for moral legitimacy

belongs to the prudential judg-

ment of those who have respon-

sibility for the common good.

(CCC, no. 2309)


The Cardinal Virtue by

which one is able to give God and

neighbor what is due to them.


The term used to

refer to the action of God by which

we are freed from our sins and

sanctified and renewed by the grace

of God.



The actu-

alization of God’s will for human

beings proclaimed by Jesus Christ

as a community of justice, peace,

mercy, and love, the seed of which

is the Church on earth, and the

fulfillment of which is in eternity.



Members of the Church,

distinguished from the clergy and

those in consecrated life, who have

been incorporated into the People

of God through the Sacrament

of Baptism.


The moment

at the end of time when everyone

will appear before Christ and

receive an eternal recompense in

accord with their earthly life.


A code of conduct established

by a competent authority. Moral

and civil law should all be based on

divine law, whether it is natural or

has been revealed by God.



A manner of

praying with Scripture; the person

praying either reflectively reads a

passage from Scripture or listens

attentively to its being read, and