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520 • Conclusion and Appendices

forgive sins, and administer

the other Sacraments, except

Holy Orders.


A modest person

dresses, speaks, and acts in a

manner that supports and encour-

ages purity and chastity and not

in a manner that would tempt or

encourage sinful sexual behavior.


In one sense, this is

the goodness or evil of particular

actions. For a Catholic, it also refers

to the manner of life and action

formed according to the teach-

ing laid down by Christ Jesus and

authoritatively interpreted by the



Mortal sin is when

we consciously and freely choose

to do something grave against the

divine law and contrary to our final

destiny. There are three conditions

for a sin to be a mortal sin: grave

matter, full knowledge, and deliber-

ate consent (freedom). Mortal

sin destroys the loving relationship

with God that we need for eternal

happiness. If not repented, it results

in a loss of love and God’s grace

and merits eternal punishment in

hell, that is, exclusion from

the Kingdom of God and thus

eternal death.


“[Mary] is clearly the mother of

the members of Christ . . . since she

has by her charity joined in bring-

ing about the birth of believers in

the Church, who are members of its

head” (LG, no. 53; CCC, no. 963).


Mary is truly

the Mother of God since she is the

mother of the Son of God made

man. In the Eastern Churches,

Mary is honored as the



or “Birth-giver of God” (sometimes

translated as “God-bearer”).



The name given in the

Eastern Churches to the Chrism

used during the Sacrament of

Confirmation, or




The term has several

complementary meanings. First,

it reminds us that we can never

exhaust God’s divine and infinite

meaning. Second, mystery tells us

that God is “wholly other,” (not

us) and yet so near that in him we

live and move and have our being.

Third, the union of the divine and

human in Christ is so unique that

we revere it as holy mystery. Fourth,

mystery also applies to

the celebration of the Sacraments

in which God, Father, Son, and

Spirit, are present and active for

our salvation.